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Organic Chemistry

Salaam (May God Bless You). Organic chemistry is the study of organic compounds found and produced around the globe. We divide the study of such materials into special groups called homologous series. The series and the study of such materials revolves around the hydrocarbons, consisting of the two elemants hydrogen and carbon. Two homologous series […]

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Practical Electricity

Salam (May God Bless You). Todays article is Practical Electricity. It will feature information about electrical components which we observe in our daily lives but sometimes just ignore it because we lack the knowledge of the importance of such components. Direct and Alternate currents In smaller circuits we use batteries and cells to provide with […]

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DC Circuits

Salam (May God Bless You). This article is about drawing circuits in their symbolical form. Since drawing original shapes of the component is very difficult we use symbols to represent the actual electronic components. This is useful as these ssymbols are understood universally and are easier and quicker to draw. Connecting In Series and Parallel […]

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Redox Reactions

Salam (May God Bless You). There are some reactions called oxidation, in which substances gain electrons, these substances also may gain oxygen or lose hydrogen atoms which is why the reactions are known as oxidation. Other reactions are known as reduction, the substances involved in such processes gain electrons, they may also lose oxygen atoms […]

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Static Electricity

Salam (May God Bless you). Static means standing still. In case of electricity we mean to say that electricity does not just pass on in a matter of moments through an object, like everyone believes, electricity can also be stored or built up in an object or more specifically an insulator. The reason for this […]

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Magnetism

Salam (May God Bless You). Magnets are popular for many uses and are most important for making various infrastructure or complex circuits. Magnets are also used in the labs for various testing. Did you knew that magnets were first discovered thousands of years ago when people noticed a certain rock named lodestone having a very […]

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Sound Waves

Salam (May God Bless You). Sound waves are mechanical longitudinal waves which can travel only through a medium. Sound is more easily described as a disturbance in a medium, more commonly air. It has the same properties as any other wave, it can refract and it can reflect. A reflected sound is called an echoe. […]

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Electrolysis

Electrolytic Cell A cell is better called an electrochemical cell. It acts as a pump which pumps electrons around a circuit it is connected in. Since electrons are negatively charged, the flow of electrons will always be from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. If the cell is connected to a molten ionic compound […]

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Light Energy

Light is a form of energy which travels as an electromagnetic wave. We have already discussed the reflective properties of waves in the previous article about waves, light waves also reflect when they touch an opaque surface. We use light rays for this because these are easier to observe. Reflection of Light Light waves follow […]

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Waves

A wave is a disturbance that travels across the environment through a series of oscillations or vibrations. A wave transfers energy from one point to another. The  particles involved in it do not move from their position but do vibrate or oscillate. This oscillation forms the crests and troughs of the waves. Types of waves […]

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Materials and Bonding

Elements Elements are the smallest substance a material is composed of, it cannot be broken down by physical techniques. There are 92 naturally occurring elements  found and there are some artificial ones as well. Elements are composed of atoms. Atoms are the smallest part of a substance taking place in a chemical reaction. These atoms […]

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Temperature

Heat and Temperature Heat is a form of energy. It travels from hot body to a cold body. While temperature is the measurement of how hot or cold a body is. These two things are not same but are closely related. Heat energy travels from a hotter body to a colder one, as an object […]

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Atomic Structure

Subatomic particles Atoms were considered to be the smallest particle a matter is composed of but this is not true. Atoms are composed of three subatomic particles; protons, neutrons and electrons. Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles which are found in the shells of the atom. The neutrons and protons are found in the nucleus […]

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Energy

Salam (May Allah Bless You). Today I am bringing you guys something pretty basic but I will write down some equations necessary for not only exams but for some practical demonstrations. Energy Energy is ability to do work. It is not easy to define energy but this is the closest definition to it. There are […]

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Pressure

Pressure in Solids All objects are pulled towards the Earth’s surface by gravity. This pulling force is called weight. The weight of an object is constant but it will not always exert same pressure. The pressure will only be exerted by the part of the object touching the ground. Such as in normal shoes the […]

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Food Tests

Salam (May Allah Bless You). I am sorry guys I haven’t posted in a month and more but I was having my Cambridge Examination of   Biology and today was the last exam, so I can post now. Today I have brought to you the last part of   Biology for O-level Cambridge as the rest have […]

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Genetic Engineering

For many years artificial selection has been used to produce better quality animals and plants to provide better yield and better quality of meat, milk, vegetables, fruits, etc. But it has been 40 years since genetic engineering had started and has slowly become part of our lives. Genetic Engineering is the process of modifying a […]

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Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the concentration of glucose increases in the body exceeding the limitations of the body. This is a dangerous disease because if it is left untreated then the patient will develop many more diseases like heart disease, kidney failure and would have weak iris in the eye. […]

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Fermentation

Fermentation is the process used to manufacture antibiotics, foods and drinks. It mainly involves the use microorganisms. It is a modern and a very useful technique. This process is used commercially across the globe to ferment products such as yogurt, cheese, bread, beer and various other products. Making Beer Yeast is added on to a […]

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Ecological Cycles

Ecological cycles consist of mainly 2 cycles; the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. These cycles are very important to know of. The reason for this is that nitrogen and carbon dioxide are in limited amounts and have to be reused again and again. Carbon dioxide is in low amounts in the atmosphere in the […]

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Artificial Selection

Charles Darwin was heavily inspired by the artificial selection which had led him to the theory of natural selection. He noticed that pigeon breeding was a common hobby at that time and observed that breeding the pigeons led to the production of a genetically different pigeon, which led to pigeons with different phenotype. He concluded […]

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Natural Selection

Natural Selection is a theory which suggests the occurrence of evolution among organisms which help the future generations survive in the world. Evolution has been discusses and observed over the ages, since the time of the ancient Greeks and was first witnessed in the 20th century. The theory was first proposed by the British biologist Charles Darwin and is accepted even today even though he was unaware of chromosomes, gene and DNA or even allele!

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Chromosome Mutation

Chromosome Mutation: As read in my previous article; genetic mutation, you should know that chromosome mutation is an error in cell division. By this we mean that during cell division the chromosomes in any one pair do not divide and remain intact. This results in one daughter cell lacking chromosome in its one pair while […]

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Genetic Mutation

Mutation: DNA replicates itself in a complex process during mitosis and meiosis. However, when the DNA replication goes wrong and the gene changes, it produces an allele. This is why an allele is defined as the different forms of genes. This change in gene is called a genetic mutation. Mutation also occurs in chromosomes. The […]

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Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary Heart Disease Arteries which supply the heart with oxygen through the blood are called coronary arteries. When fatty substances are deposited on the endothelial wall of the coronary arteries, they reduce the amount of red blood cells passing through it. This causes the decrease in oxygen supply to the heart. This in turn causes […]

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Organ Transplant

Antigens and organ transplant Antigens are chemical markers found in all cells. It is different in every species. The antigens are used by the immunity system to recognize the cells of its own body and the cells from the outside environment such as the cells of a bacteria or virus. The antigens on the blood […]

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Dental Hygiene

Structure of teeth There are four types of teeth. These are the incisors, canine, premolar and molar. Incisors are sharp and chiseled in shape. These are used to bite off pieces of food. They are found in the front of the mouth. There are two types of incisors, central incisors and lateral incisors. The canines […]

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Water pollution

Today you are going to learn all about water pollution caused mainly by sewage and use of excess fertilizers. This is a part of the ecosystem chapter in any biology book of Cambridge O-level. I will provide pictures for maximum understanding and write in the easiest of ways. If you any errors in this article […]

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Genetics

Structure of DNA Almost every cell has a nucleus. In each nucleus there are chromosomes. In human cells there are 46 chromosomes (diploid number) except for the gametes in which there are 23 chromosomes (haploid number). In each chromosome there are long strands of DNA double helix (meaning two backbones connected by the bases). This […]

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Syphilis and AIDS

Syphilis Syphilis is a disease caused by Treponema palladium, a bacteria. It enters the body mainly through mating with an infected person, It is also transmitted to a fetus from the placenta and can also be transmitted to a baby during child birth. Its signs and symptoms are hard to catch. Signs and Symptoms Syphilis […]

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Contraception

Salam (May God Bless You), today my article is about contraception. You will learn about it as you read along. I will provide pictures for good understanding. Also this article is not for children. If any child reads it I am not to be blamed. Contraception: Contraception is more commonly known as birth control. This […]