Types of Drugs
Drugs are chemicals which affect the chemical reactions occurring in the body. Drugs are commonly known to be harmful but it is not true. Many of the drugs are used as medicines. Drugs may be given in various ways such as on skin or by injection or by just swallowing it. There are various types of medicinal drugs :
- Antibodies – (e.g; penicillin) which are formed by microorganisms to kill other microorganisms. Used to cure bacterial diseases.
- Analgesics – which are painkillers (e.g; aspirin and paracetamol)
- Anesthetics – which help a patient to pass out during operations
- Antiviral drugs – used to treat diseases caused by viruses.
- Chemotherapy drugs – used to treat cancer patients
Antibodies are formed by bacteria to cure diseases formed by other bacterium. The first antibody was penicillin founded in 1928 by Dr. Alexander Fleming. He had bacterium cultures in petri dishes. He noticed that one of his cultures had a mold in it. The bacteria didn’t grew around the mold. He analyzed that the mold was releasing a chemical which affected the bacteria. The bacteria in the mold was Penicillium which is why he named the chemical penicillin. This chemical was extracted and purified in 1942. It was then used in patients to cure bacterial diseases.
Since then many new antibodies have been created. Antibodies are either broad spectrum (they cure a wide range of diseases) or they are specific. The Antibodies cures bacterial diseases by either preventing it from reproducing or by killing it:
- One way it kills is that it prevents the bacteria from synthesizing its cell wall weakening it. Water molecules then enter it by osmosis and it bursts.
- It prevents it from reproducing by interfering with the bacteria from replicating its DNA.
- It is also killed by preventing it from synthesizing proteins.
Heroin is the street name of diamorphine which is the strong form of morphine. It is a highly narcotic drug and is a strong depressant. Meaning it slow down the nervous and lowers the respond time to the stimulus. It is taken either by injecting or by rubbing skin or by swallowing it. When one takes it he develops a resistance against it and so he has to take more to again have that good feeling. This is how the user becomes rapidly addicted to the drug. However if the user tries to stop taking the drug he will face withdrawal symptoms. He will face shivering, vomiting, anxiety depression, and may fill fits.
Alcohol is a socially acceptable drug which is drunk by most people. Small amounts of it may not harm you. Those who drink alcohol in form of beer, champagne etc. every day to cope with daily life they are called alcoholics. This is also seen as a disease called alcoholism.
Short term alcoholism may lead to vomiting, nausea, lose of balance,blurred vision, aggressive actions etc.
Long term alcoholism is harmful not only for the user but for their families as well. Many diseases could occur. The liver can breakdown alcohol but when it comes in excess the liver slowly becomes useless. Diseases like cirrhosis could occur. Many physical and psychological diseases occur like lung cancer heart disease shivering anxiety.
Once the user tries to reduce the amount of alcohol or stops from taking it he or she will face withdrawal symptoms which include vomiting, hallucinations, shivering, depression, anxiety.