Charles Darwin was heavily inspired by the artificial selection which had led him to the theory of natural selection. He noticed that pigeon breeding was a common hobby at that time and observed that breeding the pigeons led to the production of a genetically different pigeon, which led to pigeons with different phenotype. He concluded that given the time natural selection could produce the same results as it was a very slow process.
For ages farmers have tried to produce better yield of meat, milk, and crops. These farmers had started cross breeding for this desire. These cross breeding soon resulted in today’s domestic food. This cross breeding for better yield is called artificial selection, and in it humans choose the animals and plants for breeding to bring about evolution in them. This is also called selective breeding.
Artificial Selection in Plants
In growing crops, fruits and vegetables, farmers use artificial selection to produce better yield. There are a ton of examples of this. One such example is a carrot. Wild carrots lack minerals and nutrients and are pale. They also do not taste good. Farmers around the world had started to breed new species of carrots. First they had the carrot self pollinated and cross pollinated according to situations. After the new carrot was reproduced it was cross pollinated. This process was applied for quite a lot of time and today we have orange, rich in minerals and tasty sweet carrots. These carrots are called domestic for this reason and are bigger in size and shape compared to the wild carrots. Same is the case with the cabbage family. Many plants which are cabbage shaped like broccoli and cauliflower have been artificially selected from the same plant, Mustard Flower plant.
Artificial selection in Animals
Artificial selection in animals is a common practice. Farmers do this to produce better quality meat and fur and to produce more milk. The farm animals, like a cow and bull, are cross bred and a genetically unique animal is born. That animal is again cross bred to produce another genetically unique animals. This process keeps on happening which is why soon new unique animals are born which produce more milk and better quality fur and meat.