Ecological cycles consist of mainly 2 cycles; the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. These cycles are very important to know of. The reason for this is that nitrogen and carbon dioxide are in limited amounts and have to be reused again and again. Carbon dioxide is in low amounts in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, it is almost 0.04% in the atmosphere. Nitrogen is in very high amounts in the atmosphere, almost 78% of the atmosphere is filled with nitrogen. But the carbon is used by the plants in photosynthesis as the gas carbon dioxide and is send back into the atmosphere during respiration. This keeps the carbon content in the atmosphere constant. Even though nitrogen is in high amounts the it is not used by the plant. It is used in the form of nitrites and nitrates through the soil.
Carbon dioxide is found in the atmosphere in low amounts. This is used by the plants in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates and oxygen. The carbon dioxide is continuously sent back into the environment during respiration. Other then that the carbon is also the product of respiration in animals. When we breathe, the carbon dioxide is exhaled and is sent back into the environment. So is the case with microorganisms. The use of fossil fuels have been a disadvantage. The combustion of fossil fuels have added to the carbon cycle. These increase the amount of carbon dioxide in air.
Nitrogen is not used by plants in the form of gas. It is used as ammonia, nitrites and nitrates in the soil and is taken up by the root. These are essential for growth. The cycle shows that the plants take up the nitrogen from the soil and then is transferred to the herbivore and the consumers along the food chain. When the organisms die they are decomposed by the microorganisms. These microorganisms release the nitrogen in the form ammonia ions. The nitrogen fixing bacteria in the roots of the leguminous plants “fix” the nitrogen in the atmosphere and convert it into ammonium ions which is used by the plants. Other then that the ammonium ions are converted into nitrates by the process of nitrification. This is carried out by the microorganisms called nitrifying bacteria.
Leguminous plants means plants which have seeds in it like pea pods. These have roots with legumes in it which act as a container for the bacteria. The bacteria uses the nitrogen in the atmosphere to covert it into ammonium ions.