Salam (May Allah Bless You). This article has information about the basic part of chemistry. This is going to be basic but we will slowly make our way up to the advanced Chemistry.
Mass is the amount of matter an object or any substance contains. The mass is expressed in the SI units of Kilogram (Kg) for large masses while for small masses gram (g) is used. For even smaller masses milligram (mg) may also be used. The mass of 1 Kg is equal to a 1000 grams will 1 gram is equal to a 1000 milligrams.
The mass is measured by a balance. There are 2 types of balance. One is the beam balance which has the measuring pan and a movable mass on the left hand side. A sample is placed on the pan and the moveable mass is allowed to move about horizontally. The scale is then read. The use of a beam balance requires skills of the user and is dependent on it for accurate results. It does not require a power source.
An electronic balance is more accurate than beam balance and uses a power source. This does not require skills of a person. It also has a tare function. The mass of a beaker or a container which has liquid in it is called a tare. This hinders the accuracy of measurement of mass of a liquid as the tare value adds to the mass of the substance in the measurement. The tare function is that the balance can execute this mass and only calculate the mass of the substance inside the container.
Volume is the amount of space a substance covers. Volume is expressed in SI units cubic decimeter (dm^3) for large volumes while for smaller volumes cubic centimeter (cm^3) is used. Cubic meter (m^3) is also used when measuring large volumes. Liter and milliliter are used sometimes but are not agreed SI units to be used for calculating volume so they are converted to cubic decimeter.
There are two types of apparatus used for measuring volumes. There are those apparatus which are used to calculate accurate measurements and there are those which are used to calculate approximate measurement. The beaker is used for approximate measurement of volume of substance but the burrete is used for accurate measurement. For measuring volumes of gas, the gas syringe is used while the burette can also be used for this purpose by inverting it in a container filled with water.
Time is measured in minutes (m) and seconds (s) by using watch. A digital stopwatch is used for best measurements. Time is very important to ensure the accuracy of many experiments.
Temperature is the measurement of the degree of hotness of the body. The SI unit for temperature is Kelvin but it is mostly measured in Celsius or Centigrade (C°). The Celsius/Centigrade can be converted to Kelvin and the Kelvin can also be converted to Celsius/Centigrade:
KELVIN = CELSIUS + 273 , CELSIUS/CENTIGRADE = KELVIN − 273
Temperature is measured by using a thermometer. The most commonly used thermometer is the liquid in glass thermometer which has either dyed alcohol in it or mercury is used. In case of alcohol the measurement is taken from the bottom of the meniscus. The mercury is used more commonly in thermometers because it reacts towards temperature more fast than alcohol.
The electronic digital thermometer has probes in it which can detect temperature change and gives a more accurate temperature. It is also very cheap.
With that I end this article.